InVivoMAb recombinant Flt-3L-Ig (hum/hum)

Clone Catalog # Category
Flt-3L-Ig (hum/hum) BE0098
USD 448 - USD 11682

About InVivoMAb recombinant Flt-3L-Ig (hum/hum)

Flt-3L (FMS-related Tyrosine Kinase 3 Ligand) is an endogenous protein that functions as a cytokine and growth factor. Flt-3L is crucial for the development of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Recombinant Flt-3L-Ig is a fusion protein consisting of human Flt-3L fused to the Fc portion of human IgG1. This fusion protein is useful for activating Flt3 signaling and inducing the expansion of DC populations. Human Flt-3L-Ig is frequently reported to stimulate Flt3 signaling in vivo in mice.

InVivoMAb recombinant Flt-3L-Ig (hum/hum) Specifications

FormulationPBS, pH 7.0 Contains no stabilizers or preservatives
Endotoxin<2EU/mg (<0.002EU/μg) Determined by LAL gel clotting assay
Purity>95% Determined by SDS-PAGE
Sterility0.2 μm filtered
ProductionPurified from cell culture supernatant in an animal-free facility
PurificationProtein A
StorageThe antibody solution should be stored at the stock concentration at 4°C. Do not freeze.

Application References

InVivoMAb recombinant Flt-3L-Ig (hum/hum) (CLONE: Flt-3L-Ig (hum/hum))

Borowski, S., et al (2020). "Altered Glycosylation Contributes to Placental Dysfunction Upon Early Disruption of the NK Cell-DC Dynamics" Front Immunol 11: 1316. PubMed

Immune cells [e. g., dendritic cells (DC) and natural killer (NK) cells] are critical players during the pre-placentation stage for successful mammalian pregnancy. Proper placental and fetal development relies on balanced DC-NK cell interactions regulating immune cell homing, maternal vascular expansion, and trophoblast functions. Previously, we showed that in vivo disruption of the uterine NK cell-DC balance interferes with the decidualization process, with subsequent impact on placental and fetal development leading to fetal growth restriction. Glycans are essential determinants of reproductive health and the glycocode expressed in a particular compartment (e.g., placenta) is highly dependent on the cell type and its developmental and pathological state. Here, we aimed to investigate the maternal and placental glycovariation during the pre- and post-placentation period associated with disruption of the NK cell-DC dynamics during early pregnancy. We observed that depletion of NK cells was associated with significant increases of O- and N-linked glycosylation and sialylation in the decidual vascular zone during the pre-placental period, followed by downregulation of core 1 and poly-LacNAc extended O-glycans and increased expression of branched N-glycans affecting mainly the placental giant cells and spongiotrophoblasts of the junctional zone. On the other hand, expansion of DC induced a milder increase of Tn antigen (truncated form of mucin-type O-glycans) and branched N-glycan expression in the vascular zone, with only modest changes in the glycosylation pattern during the post-placentation period. In both groups, this spatiotemporal variation in the glycosylation pattern of the implantation site was accompanied by corresponding changes in galectin-1 expression. Our results show that pre- and post- placentation implantation sites have a differential glycopattern upon disruption of the NK cell-DC dynamics, suggesting that immune imbalance early in gestation impacts placentation and fetal development by directly influencing the placental glycocode.

Schrand, B., et al (2018). "Hapten-mediated recruitment of polyclonal antibodies to tumors engenders antitumor immunity" Nat Commun 9(1): 3348. PubMed

Uptake of tumor antigens by tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells is limiting step in the induction of tumor immunity, which can be mediated through Fc receptor (FcR) triggering by antibody-coated tumor cells. Here we describe an approach to potentiate tumor immunity whereby hapten-specific polyclonal antibodies are recruited to tumors by coating tumor cells with the hapten. Vaccination of mice against dinitrophenol (DNP) followed by systemic administration of DNP targeted to tumors by conjugation to a VEGF or osteopontin aptamer elicits potent FcR dependent, T cell mediated, antitumor immunity. Recruitment of αGal-specific antibodies, the most abundant naturally occurring antibodies in human serum, inhibits tumor growth in mice treated with a VEGF aptamer-αGal hapten conjugate, and recruits antibodies from human serum to human tumor biopsies of distinct origin. Thus, treatment with αGal hapten conjugated to broad-spectrum tumor targeting ligands could enhance the susceptibility of a broad range of tumors to immune elimination.

Blois, S. M., et al (2017). "NK cell-derived IL-10 is critical for DC-NK cell dialogue at the maternal-fetal interface" Sci Rep 7(1): 2189. PubMed

DC-NK cell interactions are thought to influence the development of maternal tolerance and de novo angiogenesis during early gestation. However, it is unclear which mechanism ensures the cooperative dialogue between DC and NK cells at the feto-maternal interface. In this article, we show that uterine NK cells are the key source of IL-10 that is required to regulate DC phenotype and pregnancy success. Upon in vivo expansion of DC during early gestation, NK cells expressed increased levels of IL-10. Exogenous administration of IL-10 was sufficient to overcome early pregnancy failure in dams treated to achieve simultaneous DC expansion and NK cell depletion. Remarkably, DC expansion in IL-10(-/-) dams provoked pregnancy loss, which could be abrogated by the adoptive transfer of IL-10(+/+) NK cells and not by IL-10(-/-) NK cells. Furthermore, the IL-10 expressing NK cells markedly enhanced angiogenic responses and placental development in DC expanded IL-10(-/-) dams. Thus, the capacity of NK cells to secrete IL-10 plays a unique role facilitating the DC-NK cell dialogue during the establishment of a healthy gestation.

Liao, G., et al (2014). "Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor Family-Related Protein Ligand is Requisite for Optimal Functioning of Regulatory CD4(+) T Cells" Front Immunol 5: 35. PubMed

Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related protein (TNFRSF18, CD357) is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and is inducible on effector T cells. In this report, we examine the role of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related protein ligand (GITR-L), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, on the development and expansion of Tregs. We found that GITR-L is dispensable for the development of naturally occurring FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the thymus. However, the expansion of Treg in GITR-L (-/-) mice is impaired after injection of the dendritic cells (DCs) inducing factor Flt3 ligand. Furthermore, DCs from the liver of GITR-L (-/-) mice were less efficient in inducing proliferation of antigen-specific Treg cells in vitro than the same cells from WT littermates. Upon gene transfer of ovalbumin into hepatocytes of GITR-L (-/-)FoxP3(GFP) reporter mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV8-OVA) the number of antigen-specific Treg in liver and spleen is reduced. The reduced number of Tregs resulted in an increase in the number of ovalbumin specific CD8(+) T effector cells. This is highly significant because proliferation of antigen-specific CD8(+) cells itself is dependent on the presence of GITR-L, as shown by in vitro experiments and by adoptive transfers into GITR-L (-/-) Rag (-/-) and Rag (-/-) mice that had received AAV8-OVA. Surprisingly, administering alphaCD3 significantly reduced the numbers of FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the liver and spleen of GITR-L (-/-) but not WT mice. Because soluble Fc-GITR-L partially rescues alphaCD3 induced in vitro depletion of the CD103(+) subset of FoxP3(+)CD4(+) Treg cells, we conclude that expression of GITR-L by antigen presenting cells is requisite for optimal Treg-mediated regulation of immune responses including those in response during gene transfer.

Hennion-Tscheltzoff, O., et al (2013). "TCR triggering modulates the responsiveness and homeostatic proliferation of CD4+ thymic emigrants to IL-7 therapy" Blood 121(23): 4684-4693. PubMed

Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is currently used in clinical trials to augment T-cell counts. Paradoxically, elevated systemic IL-7 found in lymphopenic humans is typically insufficient for CD4(+) T-cell regeneration, and thymopoiesis becomes critical in this process. Here we show that the proliferative effect of IL-7 is more pronounced on CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes compared with peripheral CD4(+) T cells. These cells express miR181a at higher levels and respond to lower concentrations of IL-7. As single-positive CD4(+) thymocytes (CD4(+)(SPT)) exit the thymus, they rapidly diminish their proliferation to IL-7 therapy, and this is mediated, at least in part, by major histocompatibility complex class II distribution outside the thymus. Interestingly, increasing T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation augments IL-7 responsiveness and proliferation of peripheral CD4(+) T cells, whereas failure to stimulate TCR abrogates proliferation induced by IL-7. Finally, we demonstrated that IL-7 enhances the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells that undergo “slow proliferation” in lymphopenic hosts. To date, our results indicate that TCR signaling is a major controlling factor for CD4 responsiveness and proliferation to IL-7 therapy.

Tirado-Gonzalez, I., et al (2012). "Uterine NK cells are critical in shaping DC immunogenic functions compatible with pregnancy progression" PLoS One 7(10): e46755. PubMed

Dendritic cell (DC) and natural killer (NK) cell interactions are important for the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity, but their relevance during early pregnancy remains elusive. Using two different strategies to manipulate the frequency of NK cells and DC during gestation, we investigated their relative impact on the decidualization process and on angiogenic responses that characterize murine implantation. Manipulation of the frequency of NK cells, DC or both lead to a defective decidual response characterized by decreased proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells. Whereas no detrimental effects were evident upon expansion of DC, NK cell ablation in such expanded DC mice severely compromised decidual development and led to early pregnancy loss. Pregnancy failure in these mice was associated with an unbalanced production of anti-angiogenic signals and most notably, with increased expression of genes related to inflammation and immunogenic activation of DC. Thus, NK cells appear to play an important role counteracting potential anomalies raised by DC expansion and overactivity in the decidua, becoming critical for normal pregnancy progression.

Guikema, J. E., et al (2011). "Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 is necessary for normal B cell development and recovery of lymphoid progenitors after chemotherapeutic challenge" J Immunol 186(4): 1943-1950. PubMed

B cell development involves rapid cellular proliferation, gene rearrangements, selection, and differentiation, and it provides a powerful model to study DNA repair processes in vivo. Analysis of the contribution of the base excision repair pathway in lymphocyte development has been lacking primarily owing to the essential nature of this repair pathway. However, mice deficient for the base excision repair enzyme, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 (APE2) protein develop relatively normally, but they display defects in lymphopoiesis. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of bone marrow hematopoiesis in mice nullizygous for APE2 and find an inhibition of the pro-B to pre-B cell transition. We find that APE2 is not required for V(D)J recombination and that the turnover rate of APE2-deficient progenitor B cells is nearly normal. However, the production rate of pro- and pre-B cells is reduced due to a p53-dependent DNA damage response. FACS-purified progenitors from APE2-deficient mice differentiate normally in response to IL-7 in in vitro stromal cell cocultures, but pro-B cells show defective expansion. Interestingly, APE2-deficient mice show a delay in recovery of B lymphocyte progenitors following bone marrow depletion by 5-fluorouracil, with the pro-B and pre-B cell pools still markedly decreased 2 wk after a single treatment. Our data demonstrate that APE2 has an important role in providing protection from DNA damage during lymphoid development, which is independent from its ubiquitous and essential homolog APE1.